Sunday, January 15, 2012

Consolidated Wikipedia Pointers for Checksums and CRCs

Here are some starting points within Wikipedia if you are interested in checksum and CRC background. (These articles also point to other places of interest.) Over time I hope to distill the practical application of all this in my blog, but for now these are reasonable starting points.
 Related pages:
It is important to realize that Wikipedia is not necessarily an authoritative source. For this area it seems there is enough critical mass of authors, editors and reviewers to get the pages into reasonable shape.

Sunday, January 1, 2012

CRC for Protecting A Single Value

Some critical applications need to protect a single byte or word of data in memory against corruption. (For example, if you want to be extra-sure about protecting EEPROM values against corruption.) A previous post gives good CRC polynomials for a wide range of circumstances, but it is always nice to know if you can do better for a special case. Below are optimal CRC polynomials for a few special cases involving small data words that might be stored in memory (RAM, EEPROM, or otherwise).

Protecting an 8-bit data word:
8-bit CRC:  HD=5;  0x9C = x^8 + x^5 + x^4 + x^3 + 1  
16-bit CRC: HD=8; 0xE92F = x^16 + x^15 + x^14 + x^12 + x^9 + x^6 + x^4 + x^3 + x^2 + x + 1
32-bit CRC: HD=16; 0xC563942F = x^32 +x^31 +x^27 +x^25 +x^23 +x^22 +x^18 +x^17 +x^16 +x^13 +x^11 +x^6 +x^4 +x^3 +x^2 +x +1

Protecting a 16-bit data word:
8-bit CRC:  HD=4;  0x93 = x^8 + x^5 + x^2 + x + 1  
16-bit CRC: HD=7; 0x978A = x^16 + x^13 + x^11 + x^10 + x^9 + x^8 + x^4 +  x^2 + 1
32-bit CRC: HD=14; 0xB396786D = x^32 +x^30 +x^29 +x^26 +x^25 +x^24 +x^21 +x^19 +x^18 +x^15 +x^14 +x^13 +x^12 +x^7 +x^6 +x^4 +x^3 +x +1

Protecting a 32-bit data word:
8-bit CRC:  HD=4;  0x92 = x^8 + x^5 + x^2 + 1  
16-bit CRC: HD=6; 0x8BFC = x^16 + x^12 + x^10 + x^9 + x^8 + x^7 + x^6 + x^5 +  x^4 + x^3 + 1
32-bit CRC: HD=12; 0xB527A43B = x^32 +x^30 +x^29 +x^27 +x^25 +x^22 +x^19 +x^18 +x^17 +x^16 +x^14 +x^11 +x^6 +x^5 +x^4 +x^2 +x +1

The hex number has an implicit +1. "HD" means Hamming Distance. Other information about this topic can be found at my previous post on good CRCs.

Note that for this sort of use it is a good idea to "seed" the CRC computation with a value of that is not zero. That avoids a data word value of zero giving a CRC computed value of zero -- which will result in an undetected error if memory is wiped to all zeros for some reason.